By Frederick Cooper

Frederick Cooper's most up-to-date publication at the heritage of decolonization and independence in Africa is helping scholars comprehend the old approach from which Africa's present place on this planet has emerged. Bridging the divide among colonial and post-colonial background, it indicates what political independence did and didn't characterize and the way women and men, peasants and staff, spiritual leaders and native leaders sought to refashion the best way they lived, labored, and interacted with one another.

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2) The development of common policy responses needed to be looked at as much as did institutional transfers of competence; the emphasis on formal transfers of authority to the EC often concealed a failure to effect a real surrender of sovereignty. (3) Unicausal theories were inadequate to deal with the phenomenon under consideration; more than one theory was needed to grasp the complexity of EC policy making. 12 Instead of reviving neofunctionalism, Moravcsik argued that these cnt1c1sms should be taken seriously, and a theory constructed that took account of them.

0 ;::o rn (f) 0 "'T'1 ITI c ::::0 0 "'0 ITI )> z z -I ITI G> ::::0 ~ z 0 7 >- 0::: 0 w I I- International Relations Theories of European Integration Realism was the dominant approach in IR in the 1950s. It assumed that sovereign states formed the fundamental units of analysis for understanding IR. The appearance of the European Community (EC) therefore provided fertile ground for those who wished to develop a critique of this dominant approach. Neofunctionalism was the name given to the first theoretical attempt to understand European integration.

This inadequacy in the analysis reflected the inadequacy in the theory. ,0 rn c :::0 0 -u (TI )> z z -I rn G) The most recent significant contribution to this debate comes from authors closely associated with the concept of multi-level governance, which has strong antecedents in neofunctionalism (see Chapter 2). Liesbet Hooghe and Gary Marks {2008) emphasized the importance of identity in the process of European integration. They shared with intergovernmentalists and neofunctionalists the view that European integration is triggered by a mismatch between efficiency and existing structures of authority, but differed from them in believing that the outcome of this process will reflect functional pressures.

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Africa Since 1940: The Past of the Present (New Approaches to African History Series) by Frederick Cooper

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